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IndustryArena Forum > WoodWorking Machines > DIY CNC Router Table Machines > Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.
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  1. #1
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    Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Hello.
    I am getting ready to start the wiring of my DIY CNC Router and I am not sure what kind of wire I need to use/buy. Here is a list of my components.

    1. Mesa - 7I76E STEP/IO Step & dir plus I/O daughtercard
    2. SMPS 60V1200W switching power supply 60V20A DC power transformer AC220V / 110V to DC60V1500W Electric machine power supply
    3. MEAN WELL MDR-60-24 DIN-Rail Power Supply 24V 2.5 Amp 60W
    4. Digital Stepper Motor Driver 2.4-7.2A 18-80VAC or 36-110VDC Stepper Motor Controller for CNC Nema 34 Stepper
    5. DM860T Digital Stepper Motor Driver 2.4-7.2A 18-80VAC or 36-110VDC Stepper Motor Controller for CNC
    6. STEPPERONLINE High Torque Nema 23 CNC Stepper Motor 114mm 425oz.in/3Nm (Z-axis)
    7. STEPPERONLINE Nema 24 Stepper Motor 3.5Nm 5A 4-lead 60x60x98mm Stepping Motor 10mm Shaft for CNC

    So far I have determined that I will use a shielded twisted pair 22awg for the connection between the motor drivers and the motors. I now need to figure out what size and type of wire to use for all the other connections. Can I use 22awg for all those as well? Which connections need shielding?

    The diagram in this video was a big help with understanding how everything connects but unfortunately it does not show wire specifics for all the connections.


    Any guidance is much appreciated!

  2. #2
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Quote Originally Posted by Sray View Post
    Hello.
    I am getting ready to start the wiring of my DIY CNC Router and I am not sure what kind of wire I need to use/buy. Here is a list of my components.

    1. Mesa - 7I76E STEP/IO Step & dir plus I/O daughtercard
    2. SMPS 60V1200W switching power supply 60V20A DC power transformer AC220V / 110V to DC60V1500W Electric machine power supply
    3. MEAN WELL MDR-60-24 DIN-Rail Power Supply 24V 2.5 Amp 60W
    4. Digital Stepper Motor Driver 2.4-7.2A 18-80VAC or 36-110VDC Stepper Motor Controller for CNC Nema 34 Stepper
    5. DM860T Digital Stepper Motor Driver 2.4-7.2A 18-80VAC or 36-110VDC Stepper Motor Controller for CNC
    6. STEPPERONLINE High Torque Nema 23 CNC Stepper Motor 114mm 425oz.in/3Nm (Z-axis)
    7. STEPPERONLINE Nema 24 Stepper Motor 3.5Nm 5A 4-lead 60x60x98mm Stepping Motor 10mm Shaft for CNC

    So far I have determined that I will use a shielded twisted pair 22awg for the connection between the motor drivers and the motors. I now need to figure out what size and type of wire to use for all the other connections. Can I use 22awg for all those as well? Which connections need shielding?

    The diagram in this video was a big help with understanding how everything connects but unfortunately it does not show wire specifics for all the connections.
    https://youtu.be/t2YNlb9GE5s?t=237

    Any guidance is much appreciated!
    Wire / Cable has an Amp rating you have to figure out how many amps a Circuit requires plus a safety factor and that will give you your Wire / Cable size, copper fine stranded is the best type of wire to use for anything CNC
    Mactec54

  3. #3
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Thanks for the input. I am in the process of trying to figure out the amp ratings for all the components.

    I am not sure which wires are required to be shielded and which do not need to be. An example is the wires going from the drivers to the motors. I see that I can get a 22/4 (4 conductor) stranded shielded wire but it is not 2 twisted pairs where each pair is shielded separately from each other. It is 4 straight conductors all wrapped together with shielding. Will that work or do I need each pair shielded?

    Shawn

  4. #4
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    I came across this:
    "Use twisted pairs to carry your signals. For best results use both wires and do not share a common ground for two or more signals. Use a pair of wires for each signal. Using shielded wire is best. "

    Just so I understand this correctly, where it says to use a pair of wires for each signal, this would mean that one twisted pair would be for the A channel (one wire going to A+ and the other wire to A-) and another twisted pair for the B channel?

    I have looked at a lot of pics of peoples wiring and I see very few using twisted pairs for any of their wiring. Most of the ones I see are just using single/individual wires (unshielded) and not a 22/4 twisted pairs shielded wire. Makes it a little hard to know how I should do it.

  5. #5
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Quote Originally Posted by Sray View Post
    Thanks for the input. I am in the process of trying to figure out the amp ratings for all the components.

    I am not sure which wires are required to be shielded and which do not need to be. An example is the wires going from the drivers to the motors. I see that I can get a 22/4 (4 conductor) stranded shielded wire but it is not 2 twisted pairs where each pair is shielded separately from each other. It is 4 straight conductors all wrapped together with shielding. Will that work or do I need each pair shielded?

    Shawn
    People do get carried away with shielded cables, in a lot of cases it is not needed, Motor cables can be shielded, the VFD Drive to Spindle Cable needs to be Shielded, shielded cable if not installed correctly can be worse than not using it at all.

    For general wiring just twisting 2 unshielded stranded wires together is all that is needed, 22-gauge wire is not much use above 5A so don't go too light with your wire size.

    The twisted cable you use an electric drill (slow Speed) at one end and clamp the other just keep a constant pressure pulling back on the cable, make a long length and cut to your needed length
    Mactec54

  6. #6
    Community Moderator Al_The_Man's Avatar
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    When building/wiring a machine, a copy of NFPA79 is a handy reference, also indicates wire sizes, code requirements etc.
    Usually there is at least one copy PDF version out there on the web.
    One other important point, is a proper Earth GND Star point.
    CNC, Mechatronics Integration and Custom Machine Design

    “Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere.”
    Albert E.

  7. #7
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    I am running Nema 24s which are 5.0a. I noticed that the leads coming out of it are 22g. Would jumping up to 20g really benefit much when tying them into the 22g leads? I went ahead and ordered 22g shielded cables. But if it would be better to go with 20g then I can order some of that. I also ordered a bunch of rolls of individual 20g unshielded wire (much like the ones in your photo). Since the motor wires for all motors will be coming together at one point I am wondering if it might be best to go with the shielded type?

  8. #8
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    It just so happens I have a good earth ground just outside my CNC room so I just need to run a cable. Curious though, where does the grounding cable go on the machine exactly?

  9. #9
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Hi Shaun - The attached video has the driver supplies daisy chained to the power supplies. This is poor practice and is not recommended if you read the driver manuals. Drivers should be connected to PS's individually. Chaining can lead to overheating of the PS to first driver line. Peter

  10. #10
    Community Moderator Al_The_Man's Avatar
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Quote Originally Posted by Sray View Post
    It just so happens I have a good earth ground just outside my CNC room so I just need to run a cable. Curious though, where does the grounding cable go on the machine exactly?
    By star ground, I was referring to the single point in the enclosure or cabinet, that houses the system, the service GND together with all other earth grounded conductors of the system go to this star point connection.
    Another practice that is now recommended in order to prevent ground loops from occurring, is equi-potential bonding, this is done in order to ensure that all metal frame work of the machine is electrically bonded together.
    A ground loop occurs when various potentials exist between one metallic part of the machine and another.
    CNC, Mechatronics Integration and Custom Machine Design

    “Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere.”
    Albert E.

  11. #11
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Peter,
    That is a good point. I will run the supply for each driver directly to the PS.

    Thanks

  12. #12
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Quote Originally Posted by Al_The_Man View Post
    By star ground, I was referring to the single point in the enclosure or cabinet, that houses the system, the service GND together with all other earth grounded conductors of the system go to this star point connection.
    Another practice that is now recommended in order to prevent ground loops from occurring, is equi-potential bonding, this is done in order to ensure that all metal frame work of the machine is electrically bonded together.
    LOL, I was wondering when I first read that. Didn't make sense to me but I just recently ran 220v to my shop and had to install a earth ground rod so I figured, why not.

    So another question, I currently have all my components mounted to a piece of MDF. I do not have a metal enclosure. So should I create a Star Ground using a terminal strip?

    Thanks

  13. #13
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Quote Originally Posted by Sray View Post
    LOL, I was wondering when I first read that. Didn't make sense to me but I just recently ran 220v to my shop and had to install a earth ground rod so I figured, why not.

    So another question, I currently have all my components mounted to a piece of MDF. I do not have a metal enclosure. So should I create a Star Ground using a terminal strip?

    Thanks
    If you installed another Ground / Earth Rod, it must be Bonded to the Main Power Service Ground / Earth Rod, or it must be removed, and a Ground / Earth wire run from the Main Power Service Ground / Earth Rod

    A Ground / Earth Bus is Better than a single point Ground stud

    You must use a metal Mounting Plate this becomes your Ground / Earth Plane, MDF is not suitable for this, a Metal Ground Plane is needed if you are using Shielded Cable as the Shield will clamp to the Ground Plane
    Mactec54

  14. #14
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Quote Originally Posted by mactec54 View Post
    You must use a metal Mounting Plate this becomes your Ground / Earth Plane, MDF is not suitable for this, a Metal Ground Plane is needed if you are using Shielded Cable as the Shield will clamp to the Ground Plane
    There is a lot here I need to understand. But to start, I have both a thin sheet of aluminum or a 1/4" steel plate that I can use instead. I can either mount the aluminum sheet to the MDF or replace the MDF completely with the 1/4" steel plate. Now for obvious reasons the aluminum plate would be the easiest to do but I am not sure if the aluminum/thickness is acceptable or if I should go with the thick plate. I am not thrilled about the thought of having to cut the 1/4" steel plate. LOL

  15. #15
    Community Moderator Al_The_Man's Avatar
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    If the Aluminum sheet is thick enough to drill and tap etc in order to mount components, it should suffice with the MDF backing.
    Do you know the gauge?
    CNC, Mechatronics Integration and Custom Machine Design

    “Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere.”
    Albert E.

  16. #16
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    It is .025"

  17. #17
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Quote Originally Posted by Sray View Post
    It is .025"
    Normally 3mm or .125 is all that is needed

    You could use Pem clinch nuts for mounting everything on the aluminum, then mount it on the MDF to stiffen it up
    Attached Files Attached Files
    Mactec54

  18. #18
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    That is definitely a good option. I will have to think about it. I may just cut the steel plate and be done with it. That way I can tap all the holes and everything will be very secure and grounded.

    Can you show me an example of a clamp/collar that would work to ground the shielded 4 conductor cable for the motors to the plate? There seem to be many different types and I want to be sure to get the correct kind.

    Thanks!

  19. #19
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    Hey another quick question about grounding the Mesa board. Should I use metal standoffs for mounting the board to the steel plate or plastic standoffs? I see both available online.

  20. #20
    Community Moderator Al_The_Man's Avatar
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    Re: Need some guidance on which wire I need to use.

    The metal would provide better bonding.
    CNC, Mechatronics Integration and Custom Machine Design

    “Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere.”
    Albert E.

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